What is Diabetes Mellitus
The goal of diabetes management is to keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as safely possible. Since the diabetes may greatly increase risk for heart disease and peripheral artery disease, measures to control blood pressure and cholesterol levels are an essential part of diabetes treatment as well.
People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care. This will includes monitoring blood glucose levels, maintaining physical activity, dietary management keeping weight and stress under control monitoring oral medications and if required the insulin use via injections or pump. The program will enables patients to make more consistent and appropriate adjustments in their therapy and lifestyle.
Physical Activity and Dietary Management
Modifying eating habits and increasing physical activity are typically the first steps toward reducing blood sugar levels.
There are two principle forms of diabetes:
♦ Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent) in which the pancreas fails to produce the insulin which is essential for survival. This form develops most frequently in children and adolescents, but is being increasingly noted later in life.
♦ Type 2 diabetes (formerly named non-insulin-dependent) which results from the body’s inability to respond properly to the action of insulin produced by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is much more common and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. It occurs most frequently in adults, but is being noted increasingly in adolescents as well.
People with type 1 diabetes require multiple insulin injections each day to maintain safe insulin levels. Insulin is always required to treat type 2 diabetes too. Using an insulin pump is the alternative to injections. This pump is about the size of a pager and is usually worn on your belt. The insulin is delivered through a small tube (catheter) that is placed under the skin (usually in the abdomen).
There are four major types of insulin:
Your doctor will determine your dose and how often you need to take insulin. There are no standard of insulin dose as it depends on factors such as when you eat, your body weight. how often you exercise and how much insulin your body produces.
Sometimes blood sugar levels remain high in people with type 2 diabetes even though they eat in a healthy manner and exercise. When it happens, medications taken in pill form may be prescribed. The medications will work in several different ways. These include improving the effectiveness of the body’s natural insulin, to lower blood sugar production and to increase insulin production and inhibit blood sugar absorption. The qral diabetes medications are sometimes taken in combination with insulin.